General Interest

what is "ice calving" of a glacier?

Glaciers are a crucial element of the world's ecosystem. When the terminus of a glacier occurs at the sea or a lake, the glacier is pushed out over the water. The ice that breaks away can be classified as an iceberg, but may also be a growler, bergy bit, or a crevasse wall breakaway. It is the sudden release and breaking away of a mass of ice from a glacier, iceberg, ice front, ice shelf, or crevasse. Jeffries, M.O., And Serson, H. 1983. Calving, the formal name for the birth of an iceberg, is a fairly common process typically stimulated by warming waters. According to GEUS, since 1999, the glacier has lost 160 square kilometers of ice, an area twice the size of Manhattan, with … To fill in these gaps, computer modellers have been working on simulations of calving glaciers to gain insight into the processes involved in iceberg calving and to recreate the behaviour of glaciers. Goodbye, glaciers. When calving occurs due to waterline melting, only the subaerial part of the glacier will calve, leaving a submerged 'foot'. This phenomenon is called ice calving, which is the production of icebergs by a glacier when ice masses break away from the glacier at its ice front. Oct 19: How CPOM took me to the surface of Mars. These glaciers are dome-shaped and usually form on top of mountains or volcanoes. In just 30 minutes at the end of June, four-and-a-half miles of icebergs fractured off of Greenland’s Helheim glacier in an icy churn. It is considered a form of ice abelation or ice disruption and is normally caused by the expansion of the ice around it. Calving of Greenland's glaciers produce 12,000 to 15,000 icebergs each year alone.[6]. Photo about A giant piece of Ice breaks off the Perito Moreno Glacier in Patagonia, Argentina. Glacier Power started as a 1997 middle-school curriculum supplement produced by the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) in collaboration with glaciologists, local scientists, teachers, students, and artists. It is the sudden release and breaking away of a mass of ice from a glacier, iceberg, ice front, ice shelf, or crevasse. Data is currently being assembled from ice shelves in Antarctica and Greenland to help establish a 'calving law'. This event was the biggest of its kind for at least the past 25 years. Ice calving is a cataclysmic event in which large chunks of ice break away from a larger glacier. This section, about 30 km by 30 km is moving at about 12 meters per day and is expected to eventually calve away. Arctic 35542-544. Since 1900, about 90% of Ellesmere Island's ice shelves have calved and floated away. The calving margin of Perito Moreno Glacier in Argentinean Patagonia. Glacier velocity and its derivatives depend on the magnitude of the driving stress, the mixture of forces resisting flow, and their variations in space and time. Journal 761550-1575. Image of melt, highland, calve - 94110669 The largest piece was 66.4 km2 (25.6 sq mi) in area, (slightly larger than the City of Manhattan.[15]). Variables used in models include properties of the ice such as thickness, density, temperature, c-axis fabric, impurity loading, though 'ice front normal spreading stress', is likely the most important variable, however it is usually not measured. The calving event lasted for 75 minutes, during which time the glacier retreated a full mile across a calving face three miles (five kilometers) wide. Melting at the waterline is an important second order calving process as it undercuts the subaerial ice, leading to collapse. 1 (March 1986) P. 15-19, "The loose tooth: rifting and calving of the Amery Ice Shelf - Australian Antarctic Division", "Calving | Define Calving at Dictionary.com", "Calving processes and the dynamics of calving glaciers", "A physically based calving model applied to marine outlet glaciers and implications for the glacier dynamics", "How close should boats come to the fronts of Svalbard's calving glaciers? (Photo courtesy of Martyn Clark.) The images of the Belcher Glacier above, captured over one summer by glaciologists Colleen Mortimer and Martin Sharp of the University of Alberta's Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, have also been rendered into a time-lapse video to better illustrate the process of glacier calving.. Ask crazy4mangos about Parque Nacional Los Glaciares . Lyons, J.B., And Ragle, R.H. 1962. Andreas Vieli, in Snow and Ice-Related Hazards, Risks and Disasters, 2015. A glacier is categorized as an ice field or ice cap when its size is less than 50 000 square kilometers (19 000 square miles). Recent Changes At The Front Of Ward Nwt. I highly recommend this location! I highly recommend this location! Ice pinnacle separating from Perito Moreno Glacier. Glacier Bay, Alaska - home to incredible icebergs, glaciers, majestic snow-capped mountains, ice-calving, sea lions on ice-rafts, birds and marine life. I really slammed it together. I didn't do a boat tour, but you can see ice calving and you can hear the sound like thunder. But without an accurate parameterisation of iceberg calving, calving rates and therefore related sea level rise, projections from these models are poorly constrained. The Blue Glacier is one of the most studied glaciers in the world. Ice sheets are only found in Greenland and Antarctica. Many glaciers terminate at oceans or freshwater lakes which results naturally[5] with the calving of large numbers of icebergs. It started retreating and evolved over the centuries into the largest protected water area park in the world. [4] The waves formed in locations like Johns Hopkins Glacier can be so large that boats cannot approach closer than 3 kilometres (1.9 mi). It is the sudden release and breaking away of a mass of ice from a glacier, iceberg, ice front, ice shelf, or crevasse. One day I hope to go out to Greenland and witness these myself, but for now some of the spectacular footage on YouTube will have to suffice! Calve definition, to give birth to a calf: The cow is expected to calve tomorrow. Party Calculator . While calving is not a new phenomenon, it is becoming more and more frequent as the temperatures of both air and ocean continue to rise. Since the mid 1990s, many of these glaciers have dramatically accelerated, thinned and retreated, calving increasing quantities of ice into the ocean. The boat trip in itself is beautiful where you will see hundreds of icebergs in all shapes and sizes, and even a small waterfall from the big open sundeck from the top of the boat. Our projections of sea level rise from the ice sheets are informed by computer models that simulate ice flow over continental length scales (see Steph’s blog post). Although parts of the supplement have become outdated, several components of Glacier Power are still user favorites and rank among ASF’s most-visited pages. Jeffries, M. 1982. Anna's fieldwork blog from Greenland, as featured in The Guardian, describes life as part of the European Space Agency land ice ground team, collecting valuable measurements that are used to validate satellite data. Holdsworth, G. 1971. Surfers can wait for several hours in the icy water for an event. It is useful to classify causes of calving into first, second, and third order processes. Ice calving, also known as glac­ier calving or ice­berg calving, is the break­ing of ice chunks from the edge of a glacier. Also, the article is pretty weak. Glacier Power started as a 1997 middle-school curriculum supplement produced by the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) in collaboration with glaciologists, local scientists, teachers, students, and artists. Getting close to a calving glacier is perilous work. Sometime between August 1961 and April 1962 almost 600 km2 of ice broke away. [citation needed]. Calving of ice shelves is usually preceded by a rift. Ice pinnacle separating from Perito Moreno Glacier. These slabs can be up to 1000m in height, producing an incredible spectacle. A massive chunk of ice - larger than the city of Paris - has broken off from the Arctic's largest ice shelf because of warmer temperatures in Greenland, scientists said … Ice calving, also known as glacier calving or iceberg calving, is the breaking of ice chunks from the edge of a glacier. A second calving occurred in May 2000 and created an iceberg 167 km x 32 km. A very large, thick mass of glacial ice flowing outward in all directions from on or mote accumulation center.s. It is a form of ice ablation or ice disruption and is normally caused by the glacier expanding. Second and third order calving processes can be considered to be superimposed on the first order process above, and control the occurrence of individual calving events, rather than the overall rate. Start studying Chapter 15 Glaciers geology. Margerie Glacier is an icy highlight of any visit to Glacier Bay National Park, and a primary destination for visitors on sailboats, kayaks, tourboats, and cruise ships. Margerie Glacier is an icy highlight of any visit to Glacier Bay National Park, and a primary destination for visitors on sailboats, kayaks, tourboats, and cruise ships. This process is called calving. [13], The largest observed calving of an ice island happened at Ward Hunt Ice Shelf. Ice calving produces icebergs, or growlers, when a mass of ice breaks away from a glacier, ice front, ice shelf or an iceberg. The ice that breaks away can be classified as an iceberg, but may also be a growler, bergy bit, or a crevasse wall breakaway.[2]. Stages of ice calving. Calving at these glaciers often takes the form of entire slabs of the calving front detaching and overturning. Ice calving is a cataclysmic event in which large chunks of ice break away from a larger glacier. Many different environmental factors such as melting of the glacier surface, undercutting of the calving face by warm fjord water or the resistance from sea ice in fjords combine to promote or prohibit calving. And thank you for your good advice.-- This sequence of the historic breakup at the Ilulissat Glacier in Western Greenland was recorded by the directors, Adam LeWinter and Jeff Orlowski, of Chasing ice on May 28, 2008. Tidewater glaciers are a form of calving glaciers, which break off into chunks as they push forward into bodies of water, creating icebergs. The term “iceberg calving” covers the wide range of processes through which intact chunks of ice are discharged to the oceans from the termini of glaciers or the margins of ice shelves. Please feel free to move the page as you see fit. When a glacier calves, the mass of ice can produce 8 metre waves. Ice calving, also known as glacier calving or iceberg calving, is the breaking of ice chunks from the edge of a glacier. Glacier Bay – a sight to behold, although you need to be on one of those fantastic cruises up the Canadian coast from Whittier – for us it was the Star . These events have become major tourist attractions in locations such as Alaska. When crevasses penetrate the full thickness of the ice, calving will occur. Such cracks are often deepened by … The reason why continental glaciers are not that well-known is simple. This large ice shelf, located in the Weddell Sea, extending along the east coast of Antarctic Peninsula, consists of three segments, two of which have calved. Ward Hunt Ice Shelf, Spring 1982. Topic: icebergs and ice shelves. First conceived in 1995 by Ryan Casey while filming for IMAX, this sport involves a surfer being towed into range by a jet ski and waiting for a mass of ice to calve from a glacier. Ice shelves. This glacier is amazing and while you don't want to drink the water from the lake, if you can find a stream running into the lake, the water is fresh and amazing! By itself, this simple study isn’t sufficient evidence to prove that this mechanism was responsible for the calving event seen. Ice calving, also known as glacier calving or iceberg calving, is the breaking of ice chunks from the edge of a glacier. A total of 87.1 km2 (33.6 sq mi) of ice was lost in this event. Caption. Removing a block of ice from the surface near the calving front to simulate the first calving event induces a large tensile stress at the base of the glacier (the peak of the red curve in (b)) where the glacier is losing contact with the bedrock as it tries to lift. It is about 1-mile wide, with an ice face that is about 250 feet high above the waterline, but with its base about 100 feet below sea level. The ice that breaks away can be classified as an iceberg, but may also be a growler, bergy bit, or a crevasse wall breakaway. The photograph may be purchased as wall art, home decor, apparel, phone cases, greeting cards, and more. It is the sudden release and breaking away of a mass of ice from a glacier, iceberg, ice front, ice shelf, or crevasse. For bookings or more information, please contact us. The entry of the ice into the water causes large, and often hazardous waves. I didn't do a boat tour, but you can see ice calving and you can hear the sound like thunder. At more than 500m upstream from the calving front, this represents a tenfold magnification of the initial minor calving event. [11], Though many factors that contribute to calving have been identified, a reliable predictive mathematical formula is still under development. Calving From Ward Hunt Ice Shelf, 1961-1962., Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 8:299-305. To explore this hypothesis, I’ve built a very simple numerical model. Ice calving off the terminus has filled much of Vitus Lake with icebergs, which appear white in the pictures. It was released in the United States on November 16, 2012. The term “iceberg calving” covers the wide range of processes through which intact chunks of ice are discharged to the oceans from the termini of glaciers or the margins of ice shelves. First conceived in 1995 by Ryan Casey while filming for IMAX, this sport involves a surfer being towed into range by a jet ski and waiting for a mass of ice to calve from a glacier. The footage shows a small calving event from the surface of the calving front, followed barely three minutes later by a much larger calving of the whole glacier front. This is evidenced by the fact that many glaciers lie in mountain ranges that have signs of much larger ice masses having once been there. It is the sudden release and breaking away of a mass of ice from a glacier, iceberg, ice front, ice shelf, or crevasse. Adam LeWinter and Jeff Orlowski captured this footage, which is featured in the film Chasing Ice. I highly recommend this location! The single glacier alone contains 1.7 feet of potential global sea level rise and is thought to be in a process of unstable, ongoing retreat. Alaskan glacier races forward Thicker ice shelves spread more quickly, so this affects the location of ice calving as well. Known as tidewater glaciers, these glaciers are the seaward extensions of ice streams originating in ice fields, ice caps, or ice sheets. [12] Another theory, based on preliminary research, shows that the calving rate increases as a power of the spreading rate near the calving front. Your Alaska Glacier Ice Calving stock images are ready. Eventually, the ice will collapse under its own weight, and millions of tons of ice will fall into the sea to form new icebergs. Drink it! Tidewater glaciers deposit this moraine underwater, on the sea floor. (of a glacier, an iceberg, etc.) Glaciers in the Present and Future. Rides of 300 metres lasting for one minute can be achieved. Download this stock image: Ice calving from a glacier. Footage is from the film Chasing Ice. [16] The calving event lasted for 75 minutes, during which time the glacier retreated a full mile across a calving face three miles (five kilometers) wide. This raises a problem. When the terminus of a glacier occurs at the sea or a lake, the glacier is pushed out over the water. Some tidewater glaciers are similar to surging glaciers in … It is a form of ice ablation or ice disruption and is normally caused by the glacier expanding. Ice calving, also known as glacier calving or iceberg calving, is a form of ice ablation or ice disruption. [17] Surfers can wait for several hours in the icy water for an event. However, unlike alpine glaciers, 99 percent of all glacier ice can be found in continental glaciers. Ice calving, also known as glacier calving or iceberg calving, is a form of ice ablation or ice disruption. Photographer James Balog and his team were examining this glacier in 2008 when their cameras caught a piece of glacier the size of the Lower Manhattan fall into the ocean. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Then the ice breaks off because the front of the glacier is exposed to the wind, the tides, and many currents which will release chunks of ice. On one end of the scale, Antarctic ice shelves calve huge tabular icebergs over decades or longer, for example the likely imminent calving of Larsen C. Goodbye, glaciers. See more. A new expedition hopes to change that. As for the name, search engines come up with Iceberg calving, Glacial calving and Glacier calving, but not a lot of ice calving. a third of present day mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet. What is iceberg calving, and why does it matter? It is a form of ice ablation or ice disruption and is normally caused by the glacier expanding. Drink it! This process is extremely dangerous, as it has been known to occur, without warning, up to 300m from the glacier terminus. ", "Rifting and calving of the Amery Ice Shelf - Australian Antarctic Division", "Video: Largest glacier calving ever caught on film | EarthSky.org", "Chasing Ice" captures largest glacier calving ever filmed, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ice_calving&oldid=991858164, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Chasing Ice is a 2012 documentary film about the efforts of nature photographer James Balog and his Extreme Ice Survey (EIS) to publicize the effects of climate change, directed by Jeff Orlowski. Calving of glaciers is often accompanied by a loud cracking or booming sound[3] before blocks of ice up to 60 metres (200 ft) high break loose and crash into the water. Calving rates can increase dramatically in response to increases in velocity and/or retreat of the glacier margin, with important implications for sea level change. I highly recommend this location! Stages of ice calving. However, it does leave open the exciting possibility that such a mechanism could be partly responsible for calving at these glaciers, potentially linking the long term calving rate to mechanisms focused at the calving front. When the terminus of a glacier occurs at the sea or a lake, the glacier is pushed out over the water. Arctic 5:67-103. Calving glaciers, which discharge icebergs into an ocean or lake, have retreated more rapidly than those on land because of sections collapsing at the glacier front and due to … Ice calving, also known as glacier calving or iceberg calving, is the breaking of ice chunks from the edge of a glacier. Ice sheets. Download all free or royalty-free photos and vectors. [14], In 2005, nearly the entire shelf calved from the northern edge of Ellesmere Island. Thus, a third order process is defined, whereby upward buoyant forces cause this ice foot to break off and emerge at the surface. process by which ice breaks off a glacier's terminus; usually the term is reserved for tidewater glaciers or glaciers that end in lakes, but it can refer to ice that falls from hanging glaciers. See the largest glacier calving ever caught on film, the Ilulissat Glacier in Western Greenland in 2008. Drink it! Arctic Ice Islands. Arctic 36:289-290. This glacier is amazing and while you don't want to drink the water from the lake, if you can find a stream running into the lake, the water is fresh and amazing! Feel free to fix what's broken. Etymologically, calving is cognatic with calving as in bearing a calf.[8]. Each year 50-70 feet (15-22 m) of snow can fall on Mount Olympus, feeding the Blue and other glaciers on its flanks. Check your understanding of the details of glaciers with an interactive, multiple-choice quiz and a printable worksheet. The Mýrdalsjökull Glacier is very close to the charming seaside town of Vik, where you can rest and recuperate after your ice-caving excursion. Ice calving from a glacier. Learn about Jake Davies' internship with CPOM and the career path it led to. Name * Email * Phone. One theory states that the calving rate is primarily a function of the ratio of tensile stress to vertical compressive stress, i.e., the calving rate is a function of the ratio of the largest to smallest principle stress. Ice Calving From A Glacier is a photograph by Steve Allen/science Photo Library which was uploaded on October 3rd, 2018. This glacier is amazing and while you don't want to drink the water from the lake, if you can find a stream running into the lake, the water is fresh and amazing! This process is called calving. Date of experience: December 2018. This is the Perito Moreno Glacier, in Patagonia, Argentina. It is a form of ice ablation or ice disruption and is normally caused by the glacier expanding. Eventually, the ice will collapse under its own weight, and millions of tons of ice will fall into the sea to form new icebergs. Hunt Ice Shelf, Ellesmere Island, Koenig, L.S., Greenaway, K.R., Dunbar, M., And Haitersley. Vík is surrounded by striking cliffs dotted with thousands of Arctic birds’ nests and glittering black sand beaches. Rates of calving often change annually, with calving slowing or shutting down entirely over the winter. Request a Quote. Ice calving, also known as glacier calving or iceberg calving, is the breaking off of chunks of ice at the edge of a glacier. In January 1995, the Larsen A Ice Shelf containing 3,250 km² of ice 220 m thick calved and disintegrated. It was about 150 km x 50 km. The boat trip in itself is beautiful where you will see hundreds of icebergs in all shapes and sizes, and even a small waterfall from the big open sundeck from the top of the boat. Calving is most common when a glacier flows into water (i.e. Refers to the low-altitude area of a glacier or ice sheet below firn with a net loss in ice mass due to melting, sublimation, evaporation, ice calving, aeolian processes like blowing snow, avalanche. Other second order processes include tidal and seismic events, buoyant forces and melt water wedging. All products are produced on-demand and shipped worldwide within 2 - … Thomas, 2004; see also Isabel’s recent blog post on marine ice sheet instability. International Union Of Geodesy And Geophysics International Association Of Hydrological Sciences, Colloque D’obergurgl, 10–18 September 1962. Video footage of a calving event discussed by Fabian Walter caught my attention as being potentially significant. [9] First order processes are responsible for the overall rate of calving at the glacier scale. The Belcher Glacier is one such glacier where ice calving has been observed by UAlberta scientists and others. (Photo courtesy of Martyn Clark.) While calving is not a new phenomenon, it is becoming more and more frequent as the temperatures of both air and ocean continue to rise. While it is normal for pieces of ice to break off from a glacier - a process called calving - they are generally not this large. Phone. Some Results From A Time Of Geophysical Research Dependent Thermodynamic Model Of Sea Ice. And that danger is poorly understood, Glowacki said. When you think of glaciers, impressive large masses of ice carving their way down mountainsides along valleys will spring to mind. When a glacier calves, the mass of ice can produce 8 metre waves. Rectic And Maykut, G.A., And Untersteiner, N. 1971. Ice calving, also known as glacier calving or iceberg calving, is the breaking off of chunks of ice at the edge of a glacier. Eventually, the ice will collapse under its own weight, and millions of tons of ice will fall into the sea to form new icebergs. 88-97. process by which ice breaks off a glacier's terminus; usually the term is reserved for tidewater glaciers or glaciers that end in lakes, but it can refer to ice that falls from hanging glaciers. Message. CPOM > What is iceberg calving, and why does it matter? In October, 1988, the A-38 iceberg broke away from the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf. CPOM researchers Victoria Lee and Tony Payne have co-authored, alongside Robin S. Smith (NCAS), this article for the UK Earth system modelling project (UKESM) July newsletter. The Greenland Ice Sheet drains into the ocean through a series of mighty outlet glaciers. Upslope from the lake, the foot of the glacier is riddled with crevasses — cracks in the ice caused by the glacier’s movement over a rough surface. It calves icebergs into the ocean where the glacier terminates, which, in this case, is in Lady Ann Strait. Eventually, the ice - 2ADC8HE from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. It is a form of ice ab­la­tion or ice dis­rup­tion and is nor­mally caused by the glac­ier ex­pand­ing. The most famous of these is Jakobshavn Isbrae, the world’s fastest flowing glacier, which is thought to have calved the iceberg that sunk the Titanic. Calving of icebergs is an important component of mass loss from the polar ice sheets and glaciers in many parts of the world. It started retreating and evolved over the centuries into the largest protected water area park in the world. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The mass budget of such ocean-terminating glaciers differs fundamentally from their land-terminating counterpart in that the ablation process is dominated by the mechanism of iceberg calving, and surface melt plays only a minor role or is completely absent as in … The first order cause of calving is longitudinal stretching, which controls the formation of crevasses. I didn't do a boat tour, but you can see ice calving and you can hear the sound like thunder. The Olympic Mountains are tall enough and far enough north (48° latitude) that much of the moisture they rake from storms falls as snow. Also known as the Ilulissat Glacier or Sermeq Kujalleq in western Greenland, in an ongoing event, 35 billion tonnes of icebergs calve off and pass out of the fjord every year. Glacier Bay was a large single glacier of solid ice till early 18th century. A glacier confined to a mountain valley, which in most instances had previously been in a spring valley. It is supported on one end by the shoreline and at the terminus by the underwater moraine. I didn't do a boat tour, but you can see ice calving and you can hear the sound like thunder. The calving event lasted for 75 minutes and the glacier retreated a full mile across a calving face three miles wide. But in between, the glacier … Ice calving from a glacier. The Thwaites Glacier is often considered one of the most important when it comes to changes in sea level, but it has been little studied. These factors, therefore, exert the primary control on calving rate. Getting close to a calving glacier is perilous work. Thermal History And Growth Of The Ward Hunt Ice Shelf. As the moraine builds up over time, the part of the glacier in the water is like a bridge stretched across a ravine. [1] It is a form of ice ablation or ice disruption. It is a form of ice ablation or ice disruption and is normally caused by the glacier expanding. Ice calving, also known as glacier calving, happens when large ice chunks break from the edge of its larger mass. Rides of 300 metres lasting for one minute can be achieved. Ice calving from a glacier. Eqi glacier, located 80 km/49,7 miles north of Ilulissat with a population of 4,541 is the third-largest town in Greenland. Eqi glacier, located 80 km/49,7 miles north of Ilulissat with a population of 4,541 is the third-largest town in Greenland. Glacier Bay, Alaska - home to incredible icebergs, glaciers, majestic snow-capped mountains, ice-calving, sea lions on ice-rafts, birds and marine life. This glacier is amazing and while you don't want to drink the water from the lake, if you can find a stream running into the lake, the water is fresh and amazing! to break off or detach (a piece): The glacier calved an iceberg. In glacier: Tidewater glaciers …in the ocean with the calving of icebergs. Both are pretty stunning to watch on video, so we can only imagine what it was like to watch in person. The ice subject to the tensile stress is being pulled apart, potentially allowing crevasses to form at the base which might grow quickly to penetrate the full thickness of the glacier, resulting in calving. We found this video after watching an ice “explosion” filmed by tourists in Wilhelmina Bay, Antarctica. This poses the question of whether the removal of ice from the surface could have increased the buoyancy of the glacier front enough to trigger the second much larger event, within the timescale of minutes. Calving is an important process of mass loss for the world’s ice sheets, estimated to be responsible for a third of present day mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet. When the terminus of a glacier occurs at the sea or a lake, the glacier is pushed out over the water. Calving is also important in the stability of marine-terminating glaciers, with an initial calving retreat potentially able to destabilise the grounding line and trigger acceleration of the glacier (e.g. Then the Larsen B Ice Shelf calved and disintegrated in February 2002. Despite its importance, a comprehensive understanding of iceberg calving remains elusive, for a number of reasons: its processes occur over a huge range of time and length scales on glaciers around the world; there are limited observations of calving – satellites passing overhead once a day or so will miss most of the action, many important processes are hidden from view beneath the water or at the bed, and the termini of calving glaciers are hazardous environments; and calving is part of a complex feedback cycle along with glacier thinning and ice flow acceleration.

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